On the regenerative capabilities of electrodynamic dampers using bond graphs and model predictive control

Layne Clemen, Olugbenga Moses Anubi, and Donald Margolis

There is a constant interest in the performance capabilities of active suspensions without the associated shortcomings of degraded fuel economy. To this effect, electrodynamic dampers are currently being researched as a means to approach the performance of a fully active suspension with minimal or no energy consumption. This paper investigates the regenerative capabilities of these dampers during fully active operation for a range of controller types—emphasizing road holding, ride, and energy regeneration. A model of an electrodynamic suspension is developed using bond graphs. Two model predictive controllers (MPCs) are constructed: standard and frequency-weighted MPCs. The resulting controlled system is subjected to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) roads A–D and the results are presented. For all of the standard MPC weightings, the suspension was able to recover more energy than is required to run the suspension actively. All of the results for optimal energy regeneration occurred on the standard Pareto tradeoff curve for ride comfort and road holding. Frequency weighting the controller increased suspension performance while also regenerating 3–12% more energy than the standard MPC.

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